What Is Interoperability in Healthcare
Interoperability is the extent to which systems and devices can exchange and interpret shared data. In healthcare, effective interoperability occurs when IT and software systems to exchange shared data to create information that can be used to assist clinicians and other medical professions with patient care.
Issues Healthcare Staff Are Currently Facing
“Staff suffer from increasing workload and stricter performance measures with less flexibility. This has caused psychological and physical stress…” Science Daily.com
It’s no secret that digitising healthcare IT systems has been a slow and frustrating process for all stakeholders involved, especially the end users who have the responsibility of delivering safe patient care in a secure manner. This adds further pressure to staff who are already suffering from increased workloads and limited resources.
“We physicians have the longest training time of any profession, yet we now spend roughly two-thirds of our workday as data-entry clerks, tending to digital paperwork and administrative burdens” – WSJ.com
How Is Data Currently Manifesting Itself in Healthcare?
- Notes entered into the EHR (electronic health record)
- Documents that have been scanned as image files or pdf documents
- Discrete data such as lab test results.
“The data arrives from many different sources and systems and in multiple formats. It has to be parsed into a format that everyone understands and has been trained to act upon in an appropriate manner” Alan Brookstone
- The Tech
Data presentation can negatively influence decision making if it is presented in an illogical or intuitive way
- Human Skills
The computer skills of all staff members and knowledge of their EHR has a significant impact on data interpretation. There are many reasons why some people are less digitally literate than others.
- Upgrades and Disruption
According to AmericanEHR one of the most frequent complaints of users is that their EHR does not have the necessary tools or capabilities to perform a certain function. Sometimes the staff are unaware that their EHR has the functionality as they haven’t been trained to use the product properly. In other cases their system may require an upgrade. Upgrades can be complex and entire servers may need to be shut down for maintenance. Consequently, upgrades are often delayed because of the disruption.
How Can We Succeed?
Lack of interoperability leads to poor outcomes, therefore the issue must be tackled to ensure quality control.
We believe merging simple-to-use, reliable technology and adequate human support and training will result in the ultimate success of any EHR implementation.
So a move towards cloud-based systems will have a definite advantage as the software is updated centrally by the vendor with limited need to update technology at the user end.
The most significant impact would become apparent with changes to government regulations. G Cloud is an initiative that assists with the procurement by public sector departments in the UK of cloud based commodity IT services. Traditionally, vendors have to be certified as compliant by the Department of Health which inhibits better products and slows down new system implementation. G Cloud is a way of shifting away from more primitive systems and offers a positive step towards improving the efficiency of EHR software and communication tools.
At Bitjam we pride ourselves on finding continuous ways to improve developer documentation, with cloud-based systems and use of more consistent data design at the forefront of what we do. Our mission is to use technology for social good, so if you have a digital healthcare problem that you’d like to solve, email us at [email protected] to find out more about our previous work.
Yesterday we introduced you to the latest project at Bitjam: ANNA. A learning algorithm that analyses poetry and audibly delivers it in an old-fashioned regional Potteries dialect, the project has been inspired by the bid for Stoke-on-Trent as the next UK City of Culture. We interviewed Liam Mountford, Senior Developer at Bitjam, about the technical elements of creating artificial intelligence (AI) that is able to independently learn.
Why did you have the idea to create a computerised system that creates poetry and delivers it in a potteries dialect?
The initial idea came about from a discussion between me and Carl. Carl knew I had an interest in machine learning from the work I did for my dissertation, I created a neuro-evolutionary algorithm that was to predict the results of the 2015 general election. I have had a number of discussions about neural networks and similar machine learning and AI algorithms with Carl, where I tended to ramble on about some of the more interesting aspects such as trying to create a Neural Network (NN) that could produce pieces of art. Carl liked the sound of a creative learning machine and formed the idea of using it to create potteries poetry.
From a more technical point of view, how does ANNA actually work?
Once we had our idea we sat down and had a discussion about the possible complexity of the project. A fully fledged bespoke neural network is quite a lot of work so we decided to try to find some existing neural networks to base our work off of. With the help of Jacob we found a Recursive Neural Network (RNN) designed to take text input and after a large number of training cycles we then tried to get ANNA to output some meaningful ‘learned’ poetry.
So, tell us more about neural networks.
In it’s simplest form a NN consists of 3 layers. The input layer accepts various inputs. In theory, as many or as few as you need. Next the hidden layer, this is the heart and soul of a NN and helps to create the correlating links between the various inputs supplied at the input layer. Finally the output layer, is the part of the NN that spits out – hopefully! – some sort of meaningful information. Where a RNN differs is that there is a recursive link between the output and hidden layer, this part is important as it helps the RNN to learn the structure of the language supplied. In turn this means that the particularly interesting part with the RNN is that it is able to learn dialects such as potteries.
How does ANNA learn poetry?
ANNA is a python script based on a simple RNN, we feed in around 200 pages worth of potteries dialect poetry aiming to produce some sort of meaningful poetry. Anna runs through about 500 recursive cycles of the input text per “epoch” of learning for a total of around 30 epochs. An epoch is essentially a single full training cycle.
What were the challenges of this project?
One problem that always rears it’s head is a shortage of data to feed into the RNN. So the next step for us was to source plenty of potteries dialect based poetry from poets past and present. First we tried to source as much poetry as possible from an online source, the main works we used were by Arnold Bennett. We then tried sourcing further poetry from Wilfred Bloor‘s sons Roger & Ian. Wilfred Bloor wrote over 400 Jabez tales in Potteries dialect (the Jabez character is a countryman living in the shadows of industrial Potteries). We also spoke to Alan Barrett, Stoke-born writer, storyteller, poet, and actor. Thanks to the kind contributions of these people we managed to collect plenty of poetry that has been fed into ANNA.
Come and see ANNA in action at the ACAVA Studios: Spode Works open studios event on Saturday 7th / Sunday 8th October from 12pm at Bitjam, studio number 22.
Next weekend at Bitjam we will be opening our doors to the public for the next ACAVA Studios: Spode Works open studios event. Each year a selection of studios welcome members of the public to come and see their work, holding demonstrations and workshops for people to take part in. Bitjam are hosting code workshops to demonstrate coding on a beginner level, so anybody, including children, can join in and learn on the day.
The 43 studios at ACAVA Studios: Spode Works are making a valuable contribution to the development of the Spode site, as a cultural centre for creative industries and the revitalisation of Stoke town. The studios are home to artists of traditional art forms such as painters and ceramicists, but with added contribution from more modern and technological expressions of art such as web developers and graphic designers.
As well as our code workshops, Bitjam are using the open day opportunity to showcase the Spode Works weather station which we’ve developed. The weather station is a digital machine which will tell you the weather conditions and can be found in the Bitjam studio, number 22. We’ve added an audio twist to make it relevant to the area, and the upcoming Stoke for UK City of Culture 2021 bid, by programming the weather station to deliver weather updates in “Stokie” dialect.
Further to our contribution to the city of culture bid, we’ve also been working on a computerised system that uses Stoke regional dialect to create poetry. The system is called ANNA and as part of the open day we’ll be putting our neighbour Fred Phillips to the challenge of creating equally as compelling poetry. We’ll have more details about “Fred Against the Machine”, information about workshop times and how you can help us to develop ANNA in our next blog post, out tomorrow.
ACAVA Studios: Spode Works open studios are next Saturday 7 / Sunday 8 October.