Yesterday we introduced you to the latest project at Bitjam: ANNA. A learning algorithm that analyses poetry and audibly delivers it in an old-fashioned regional Potteries dialect, the project has been inspired by the bid for Stoke-on-Trent as the next UK City of Culture. We interviewed Liam Mountford, Senior Developer at Bitjam, about the technical elements of creating artificial intelligence that is able to independently learn.
Why did you have the idea to create a computerised system that creates poetry and delivers it in a potteries dialect?
The initial idea came about from a discussion between me and Carl. Carl knew I had an interest in machine learning from the work I did for my dissertation, I created a neuroevolutionary algorithm that was to predict the results of the 2015 general election. I have had a number of discussions about neural networks and similar machine learning algorithms with Carl, where I tended to ramble on about some of the more interesting aspects such as trying to create a Neural Network (NN) that could produce pieces of art. Carl liked the sound of a creative learning machine and formed the idea of using it to create potteries poetry.
From a more technical point of view, how does ANNA actually work?
Once we had our idea we sat down and had a discussion about the possible complexity of the project. A fully fledged bespoke neural network is quite a lot of work so we decided to try to find some existing neural networks to base our work off of. With the help of Jacob we found a Recursive Neural Network (RNN) designed to take text input and after a large number of training cycles we then tried to get ANNA to output some meaningful ‘learned’ poetry.
So, tell us more about neural networks.
In it’s simplest form a NN consists of 3 layers. The input layer accepts various inputs. In theory, as many or as few as you need. Next the hidden layer, this is the heart and soul of a NN and helps to create the correlating links between the various inputs supplied at the input layer. Finally the output layer, is the part of the NN that spits out – hopefully! – some sort of meaningful information. Where a RNN differs is that there is a recursive link between the output and hidden layer, this part is important as it helps the RNN to learn the structure of the language supplied. In turn this means that the particularly interesting part with the RNN is that it is able to learn dialects such as potteries.
How does ANNA learn poetry?
ANNA is a python script based on a simple RNN, we feed in around 200 pages worth of potteries dialect poetry aiming to produce some sort of meaningful poetry. Anna runs through about 500 recursive cycles of the input text per “epoch” of learning for a total of around 30 epochs. An epoch is essentially a single full training cycle.
What were the challenges of this project?
One problem that always rears it’s head is a shortage of data to feed into the RNN. So the next step for us was to source plenty of potteries dialect based poetry from poets past and present. First we tried to source as much poetry as possible from an online source, the main works we used were by Arnold Bennett. We then tried sourcing further poetry from Wilfred Bloor‘s sons Roger & Ian. Wilfred Bloor wrote over 400 Jabez tales in Potteries dialect (the Jabez character is a countryman living in the shadows of industrial Potteries). We also spoke to Alan Barrett, Stoke-born writer, storyteller, poet, and actor. Thanks to the kind contributions of these people we managed to collect plenty of poetry that has been fed into ANNA.
Come and see ANNA in action at the ACAVA Studios: Spode Works open studios event on Saturday 7th / Sunday 8th October from 12pm at Bitjam, studio number 22.
Next weekend at Bitjam we will be opening our doors to the public for the next ACAVA Studios: Spode Works open studios event. Each year a selection of studios welcome members of the public to come and see their work, holding demonstrations and workshops for people to take part in. Bitjam are hosting code workshops to demonstrate coding on a beginner level, so anybody, including children, can join in and learn on the day.
The 43 studios at ACAVA Studios: Spode Works are making a valuable contribution to the development of the Spode site, as a cultural centre for creative industries and the revitalisation of Stoke town. The studios are home to artists of traditional art forms such as painters and ceramicists, but with added contribution from more modern and technological expressions of art such as web developers and graphic designers.
As well as our code workshops, Bitjam are using the open day opportunity to showcase the Spode Works weather station which we’ve developed. The weather station is a digital machine which will tell you the weather conditions and can be found in the Bitjam studio, number 22. We’ve added an audio twist to make it relevant to the area, and the upcoming Stoke for UK City of Culture 2021 bid, by programming the weather station to deliver weather updates in “Stokie” dialect.
Further to our contribution to the city of culture bid, we’ve also been working on a computerised system that uses Stoke regional dialect to create poetry. The system is called ANNA and as part of the open day we’ll be putting our neighbour Fred Phillips to the challenge of creating equally as compelling poetry. We’ll have more details about “Fred Against the Machine”, information about workshop times and how you can help us to develop ANNA in our next blog post, out tomorrow.
ACAVA Studios: Spode Works open studios are next Saturday 7 / Sunday 8 October.
The UK Government Are Wrong in Reducing the Use of Encryption
Are tech companies doing enough to beat cyber-crime? This question is a hot topic in the tech world right now, as the UK government increases pressure to find effective ways to tackle online communication between hackers and extremists. This blog post is going to look at the explosion of the ‘Internet of Things’, the relevancy of encryption in the healthcare sector and the importance of enabling technology that will help make the people and physical systems of the world, smarter and more efficient.
The Internet of Things
The ‘Internet of Things’ is the interconnectivity of physical devices such as smartphones, WiFi modems and software, to the internet. IoT is a big revolution for the World Wide Web, due to the wide range of applications and variety of useful software solutions it provides, from anything from smart homes to monitoring radiation levels in nuclear plants. However, due to the nature of such devices, they are prone to hacks that either commandeer the device and program them to do something they’re not intended to do, or they can be controlled to do what they’re meant to but in a devious way.
“When nodes in wireless sensor networks are monitored through internet it becomes a part of Internet of Things. This brings in a lot of concerns related to security, privacy, standardization, power management” – ieeexplore.com
What Is Encryption?
End-to-end encryption (E2EE) is a system of communication where only authorised parties users can read the messages. For example, companies that use E2EE are unable to hand over texts of their customers’ messages to the authorities. A good example of this is the mobile messaging service Telegram. Telegram messages are delivered faster than any other application, are heavily encrypted and can self-destruct.
However, the UK government’s desire to gain more control on encryption would have negative consequences on the tech world as we need this technology to actually develop safer apps and to prevent the compromisation of the IoT. The optimistic outlook of the IoT versus the security threats is a risk worth taking if it enables us to continue to develop solutions to tackle hacking.
Security is the backbone of the internet, which is the reason we need passwords to access our accounts. By enforcing laws on encryption, the UK government would effectively be able to access to your personal information even potentially data from connected devices.
We have to find a balance between national security issues and safety and security of data traffic in healthcare. Healthcare data encryption is used to protect patient confidentiality when information such as medical diagnoses, surgeries and other highly sensitive data is shared between practitioners and other healthcare authorities to provide an effective service to patients.
Many companies building innovative technologies to improve security are using encryption, and as in most areas of IT and computing, innovation in security springs mostly from startup companies, so enforcing encryption laws would also negatively affect small, creative businesses who actually play a pivotal role in successfully discovering, testing, and building out clever new ways to secure cyberspace.
In summary, as much as banking apps need encryption to prevent cybercrime, health apps need encryption to maintain security and privacy. We need to maintain confidence in the sharing of personal data via technologies by further exploring and developing ways to tackle security issues, using the technology of data encryption. Allowing Governments access via backdoors compromises patient confidentiality, and would be damaging to the progress of improving cyberspace privacy.